I will keep coming back to this and updating as I think of more.
The Joyful Mysteries:
- The Annunciation:
- Lk 1:26-38
- Mt 1
- Gen 3:15- The so-called "protoevangelium", or "first gospel". More on Adam and Eve/ Jesus and Mary here.
- Is 7:10-17
- 2 Sam 7:12-16- parallels with what the angel Gabriel says to Mary, also various psalms.
- Lk 1:39-56
- Parallels between 2 Sam 6:2-14 and Lk 1:39-46,56, revealing Mary as the Ark of the New Covenant.
- Parallels between the Magnificat (Lk 1:46-55), Mary's great song of praise, and Hannah's song in 1 Sam 2:1-10
- Lk 2:1-21
- Mt 1-2, parallels with the birth of Moses (Ex 1-2)- Jesus as the new Moses.
- Many prophecies of Jesus' birth.
- Lk 2:21-40
- Lev 12 for the details of purification of the mother, which Mary performed
- Ex 13:2- all first-borns belong to the Lord
- 1 Sam 1
- Lk 1:67-75- the naming of John is followed by Zechariah's prophecy, as the prophecy of Simeon is followed by the presentation of Jesus in Lk 2:21-40
- The full significance of this mystery is often not well understood, follow the link for a good explanation.
- Lk 2:41-52
- I can't think of other verses, but the significance of this mystery is also not always obvious. Read a good reflection here on the foreshadowing of the Passion in the Joyful Mysteries.
The Luminous Mysteries:
- The Baptism of Our Lord in the Jordan:
The Sorrowful Mysteries:
- The Agony of Our Lord in the Garden:
- The Scourging of Our Lord at the Pillar:
- The Crowning of Thorns:
- The Carrying of the Cross:
- The Crucifixion and Death of Our Lord:
The Glorious Mysteries:
- The Resurrection of Our Lord:
- Very detailed Resurrection stuff here.
- Psalm 68:18 - He will ascend into heaven - Mark 16:19; Luke 24:51; John 20:17; Acts 1:9